human papillomavirus

human papillomavirus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on human skin or in the genital area. Both men and women are almost equally sensitive to this virus.

It is worth noting that this type of infection may indicate the formation of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them affect only the female genital organs.

The World Health Organization studied HPV - abbreviated as human papillomavirus, and found out that more than 60% of the Earth's people are infected with it. Moreover, some of them are only carriers, while others have it on the skin, mucous membranes and skin. Manifested as papillomatosis of the membranes, but in some cases the human papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

etiology

About 60% of the world's population are potential carriers of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, provoking factors are the following:

  • early onset of sexual activity;
  • unprotected sex, frequent change of sexual partners;
  • chronic inflammation in the genital area, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • recurrent miscarriage;
  • weak immunity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • Non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

As medical practice shows, women are in the main risk group. People in the age group of 20-45 years are much more likely to "get" such a disease. ie those who lead an active sex life.

common symptoms

The symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the provoking factor. There is not a single clinical picture of the disease. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:

  • the formation of warts;
  • skin irritation in the genital area;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • Redness and partial itching.

At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of burning and itching of the skin may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication in no case is worth it. With such symptoms, immediately consult a dermatologist. It is better to consult.

Warts often appear in the following places:

  • on the skin of the palms, soles;
  • in the genital area;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder, and vagina. Surgery is the only way to get rid of the wart. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. For men, oncogenic factorsVery rarely seen.

It is also worth noting that at the first stage of development, the disease of this type of symptoms practically does not give. This is what often leads to an oncogenic risk factor for infection.

pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is possible only if a healthy person has a microscopic trauma to the genitals. In this case, the papillomavirus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to develop.

The incubation period of an oncogenic type of virus can last from several months to several years, while not showing any symptoms. In other words, an already infected person may be a carrier and may not be aware of it.

HPV in women

As already mentioned, women aged 20-45 years are most susceptible to the virus. But here it is worth noting the fact that the main risk group are those who frequently change sexual partners and have unprotected sex. Huh.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • high oncogenicity;
  • low oncogenicity;
  • non-oncogenic type.

The most dangerous for women's health is the infection of a higher type of oncogenesis. Almost always, this leads to cancer - a malignant tumor, cancer of the cervix. The risk of such development of pathology is 90%. Status from this factIncreases that the disease does not show symptoms in the early stages of development. Occasionally, small warts may appear on the palms and soles.

With a type of infection of high oncogenicity, warts are formed. These are formations similar to warts, but with jagged edges. Such formations can appear in the vagina, anus, perineum. Sometimes warts bubble with liquidwhich may eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.

A high type of HPV infection can also cause cancer of the vagina and vulva. In more rare clinical cases, cancer of the nasopharynx is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to completely cure a high form of HPV oncogenicity.

papilloma virus in men

Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without any symptoms. It is worth noting that in the main risk group, men who often change their sexual partners have unprotected sex.

Pathological formations are localized in such places:

  • on the head and shaft of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • in the perineum;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be grouped. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, they can be accompanied only by itching or burning during intercourse.

This type of virus in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to cancer of the genital organs. But, if you start treatment in time, the risk of oncogenic diseases is reduced. Caused by the HPV virusThe warts with them are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. Along the way, antiviral drugs are prescribed. Therefore, this type of disease in men can be completely eliminated in the early stages of development.

Human papillomavirus in women and men

diagnosis

There are several steps in the diagnosis of HPV infection. Initially, an examination and history clarification is performed by a doctor. If the disease is suspected in women, the primary examination should be performed by a gynecologist. After that, the following tests are performedCan be determined:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • biopsy of vaginal tissue;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter makes it possible not only to accurately establish the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, the form of its development. If there is a risk of developing oncological disease, a general and biochemical blood test, Instrumental research methods are additionally determined.

Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix to identify deeper pathological changes.

For men, the diagnosis has almost the same picture. After examination by a urologist or surgeon, a referral is made for testing.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis, a competent doctor can prescribe the correct course of treatment. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

At the moment, there is no such drug in medicine that can intentionally destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease is taken into account, but also the cause of its occurrence. It should also be notedQualified that a person who is or is ill with the HPV virus should be regularly examined by the attending physician. Papilloma virus can be completely cured in its early stages. In any case, cancer develops. There is always a risk of getting or developing a malignant tumor. It is easier to avoid the virus than to get rid of it.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following stages:

  • removal of warts or warts;
  • drug therapy to prevent new formations;
  • Therapy aimed at strengthening the immune system.

It should be borne in mind that such a treatment program is applicable only if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or a sexually transmitted infection. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment program may include drugs to eliminate the underlying disease. In any case antiviral drugs are used. In most cases, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not exclude recurrence of the disease.

The HPV virus is more difficult to cure if it has become chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

Treatment of human papillomavirus is possible only by a competent specialist. Self-medication here is unacceptable, since the HPV virus is recognized as oncogenic. Therefore, in most cases it is quite difficult to treat. Even genital wartsOr even surgical removal of warts does not exclude their re-formation.

How to properly treat papillomavirus, only a specialist can tell. The use of folk remedies is not enough to cure HPV. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should immediately seek competent medical help. Needed.

Redressal

One of the most effective preventive measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development in the body of not only HPV infection, but also cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules must be observed:

  • only protected sex;
  • strengthen the immune system;
  • regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to carefully monitor your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoking. For intimate life, if possible, frequent change of sexual partners should be excluded. With symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor. Counseling should be sought, not self-medication.