The main types of analysis for papillomas, features of their collection

Papillomavirus or HPV is a microorganism that has dozens of subspecies. Some changes occur on the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs, depending on which strain of virus a person has.

HPVs belonging to oncogenic subspecies are especially dangerous, that is, they increase the risk of developing malignant diseases. An analysis for papillomas, carried out in a timely manner, helps to establish the strain of papillomavirus and, accordingly, antiviralReceives treatment, which is also cancer prevention.

due to hpv

Human papillomavirus is one of the most widespread viruses worldwide.

It is believed that one or more strains of this microorganism can be found in about 90% of the population. The wide distribution of HPV is due to its ease of transmission.

The virus is only transmitted from person to person, but in a number of ways. The most basic is sexual, and it can be either traditional sexual contact or oral or anal. HPV can be passed from mother to child during childbirth, And often after a while papillomas are found in the mouth and throat of the child.

Often, the papillomavirus is transmitted by contact, that is, through damaged skin or when using certain personal items by different people. In a moist and warm environment, the microorganism fully maintains its viability, so going to the bath or poolAfter that it is easy to own it.

Certain features of sexual activity increase the risk of infection. This is its early onset, frequent change of partners, sexually transmitted diseases, abortion in women. In most cases, women are sexually infected with HPV, which a doctor can callconnect them to the anatomical features of the structures of the genitals.

Papillomavirus does not always appear immediately, in most cases, several months and years pass before its external manifestation on the skin and mucous membranes.

Several provoking factors are responsible for the activation of the pathogen, their group includes:

  • Pronounced weakening of the immune system. It is observed with frequent respiratory diseases, after prolonged treatment with antibiotics, after severe infectious diseases.
  • The negative effect of prolonged and persistent psycho-emotional stress.
  • The presence of chronic diseases of the genital area, urinary organs, digestive system.
  • Avitaminosis.
  • Bad habits - prolonged smoking, alcohol consumption.

The activation of the virus leads to the fact that it accumulates in large quantities in a certain area of the body or on the mucous membrane and changes the structure and function of the cells located here. The result of this process is the formation of warts and papillomas. presence.

Particularly dangerous are genital warts that appear in women on the external genitalia and inside the vagina. Outgrowths on the skin can be both single and multiple, often they are injured, causing the degeneration of normal cells into abnormal cells. The danger increases.

How and why is human papillomavirus analysis given?

human papillomavirus molecule

When papillomas appear on the human body, a dermatologist can say with certainty that a virus is present in this patient's body.

But in order for the treatment to be as effective as possible, laboratory diagnosis is necessary to determine the type of virus and its amount in the body.

It is imperative to determine the HPV strain if papillomatous growths are detected:

  • On the external genitalia, in the vagina in women, and on the penis and urethra in men.
  • In the throat and mouth area.
  • around the anus.

Analysis in this case allows you to establish whether the virus belongs to an oncogenic or non-oncogenic group.

This allows the doctor to predict the outcome of the disease and prescribe treatment that prevents the possibility of developing a malignant lesion. An analysis for human papillomavirus is necessary, and if precancerous conditions are detected, So in women it is cervical dysplasia or leukoplakia.

Analysis of papillomavirus is recommended for every woman after the age of 30. Ideally, it should be retested once every three to five years. This kind of attitude towards one's health can cause one to develop abnormal cellswill allow them to be identified in the early stages of their appearance.

To determine HPV in the human body, various diagnostic methods have been developed. The patient takes blood from the cervical canal and cervix for analysis, scraping and smear, in women. In men, the mucous layer of the urethra for analysis, requires cells from the prostate's secret.

Before carrying out the analysis, it is recommended to follow several rules. Male patients should not urinate for one and a half hours. A woman should not douche and use bactericidal detergents during the previous evening's hygiene.

If necessary, if HPV is suspected, a biopsy is performed. That is, a small piece of tissue is taken from the area of cell transformation.

methods of diagnosis

There are several methods in modern medical centers for the detection of HPV in the human body. The most commonly used are the following:

  • PCR - polymerase chain reaction. This method is based on the detection of human papillomavirus DNA, which makes it possible to find this microorganism with almost the highest probability. The study requires biological fluids - blood, saliva, urine, Scraping from the amniotic fluid or the mucous layer of the cervix or urethra. DNA diagnostics also helps to establish the type of microorganism and its quantitative proportion at the time of sampling.
  • The Dijin test is a modern, highly sensitive analysis that allows you to assign the virus to one of a hundred strains and determine its oncogenicity. To analyze papillomas, a scraping from the vagina or urethra is necessary. Interpretation of the results obtainedPerformed by a doctor. The Digene test allows you to find out the concentration of the virus, which indicates a high risk of degeneration of cells that have been transformed into cancer cells. Therefore, this study to determine the most effective preventive treatmentNecessary.

In case of positive test results or in case of doubtful results, a second diagnosis is prescribed. This allows you to evaluate the results of treatment and accurately determine whether a person is infected with HPV.

But even with negative results, if possible, any person should be periodically examined, as it is possible to be infected with the virus at any time.

Features of the survey in women

Contacting a doctor for human papillomavirus

The diagnosis of papillomavirus in women has its own characteristics. The most informative is a qualitatively taken scraping from the area of visual changes and from the cervical canal.

The material is obtained using a special brush, at the same time a smear is taken for cytology. In some cases, a universal medical probe can be used for the sample. The material should not be taken during menstruation, Because it will show unbelievable results.

Gynecological patients who have not reached the age of thirty are assigned only cytology. Detection of HPV before the age of 30 is not informative - it is believed that in young people the infection occurs secretly. Is.

After 30 years, cytology is determined along with tests for papillomavirus. At this time, it is important not to miss the moment indicating the degeneration of normal cells into cancer cells.

Role of Genotyping?

Genotyping is the laboratory determination of the type of virus. This type of study has several advantages, these are:

  • Simultaneous detection of multiple virus strains.
  • Determination of the degree of HPV oncogenicity. Cervical cancer is believed to occur when a woman has HPV types 16 and 18.
  • Possibility of distinguishing re-infection from persistent (chronic) infection during repeated testing.

Identification of oncogenic strains allows the doctor to choose a treatment regimen that will provide maximum antiviral effect on the body and provide preventive prevention of cancer development.

Re-genotyping reflects the effectiveness of therapy, as re-infection with the same strain is not possible.

price for test

The cost of testing for the presence of human papillomavirus in the body depends on which test is prescribed.

Conventional PCR diagnosis is cheaper in most clinics. The same method with the determination of several types of viruses and their quantitative presence in the body is already more expensive. The highest cost of the design test.